SO827 HISTORY OF CRIME AND PUNISHMENT


LECTURE SEQUENCE


1.    The historical context of crime and punishment.

2.    Crime and punishment in early modern england

3.    Crime and resistance

4.    Law, ideology and the gallows

5.    Crime and industrialisation

6.    Reading week

7.    The 'new police'

8.    Prosecution and the courts

9.    The modern system of punishment

10.   Gender and crime

11.   Corporate and white collar crime

12.   Review


Useful overviews and general texts


If you feel a need to refresh your general knowledge of nineteenth century Britain then read something like:

Harvie, Christopher and Colin Matthew (2005) Nineteenth Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press

or my favourite...

Morton, A.L. (2003) A People's History of England. London: Lawrence and Wishart. (originally published in 1938)


King, Peter (1999) 'Locating histories of crime: a bibliographical study' British Journal of Criminology 39: 161 - 174.

Lea, John (2002) Crime and Modernity: continuities in left realist criminology. London: Sage Publications

Emsley, Clive (2005) Crime and Society in England 1750-1900. (third edition) London: Pearson

Rawlings, Philip (1999) Crime and Power: A History of Criminal Justice 1688-1988. London: Longman

Sharpe, J.A. (1999) Crime in Early Modern England. (second edition). London: Pearson

Godfrey, Barry and Paul Lawrence (2005) Crime and Justice 1750-1950. Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Taylor, D. (1998), Crime, Policing and Punishment in England, 1750-1914.  Basingstoke, Macmillan.

Wiener, J, M. (1990), Reconstructing the Criminal: Culture Law and Policy in  England, 1830-1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Gatrell, Victor (1996) ‘Crime, Authority and the Policeman State’ in J. Muncie et al eds. Criminological Perspectives: A Reader. London: Sage Publications

Walkowitz, Judith (1980), Prostitution and Victorian Society. Cambridge University Press.

Zedner, Lucia (1991), Women Crime and Custody in Victorian England. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Ignatieff, Michael (1981), ‘The Ideological Origins of the Penitentiary’ in M. Fitzgerald, G. McLennan and J. Pawson eds., Crime and Society: Readings in History and Theory. London: Routledge. (chapter 3)

Beattie, John (1975), ‘The Criminality of Women in Eighteenth-Century England’  Journal of Social History, 7.


SEMINAR PROGRAMME

topics to be chosen from the following


1. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN EARLY MODERN ENGLAND

Discussion topics

To what extent is it meaningful to talk about 'crime' and 'criminal justice' as existing before the modern period?

Key points

•    decentralised settlement of disputes

•    serious crime as 'war on the monarch'

•    public executions as a spectacle of 'surplus power'

•    the distinction between sovereignty and government

Reading

* Lea, John (2002) Crime and Modernity: continuities in left realist criminology. London: Sage Publications (chapters 1 and 2 esp pp 24-9)

* McMullan, J. (1987) 'Crime, law and order in early modern England. British Journal of Criminology 27 (3): 252-74

Sharpe, J. (1999), Crime in Early Modern England 1550-1750. (second edition) London: Longman. (chapters 2 and 4)

* Foucault, Michel (1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London: Allen Lane (also Penguin Books 1991) (pp 3-103)

* Foucault, Michel. (1991) 'Governmentality' in Graham Burchell, C. Gordon and P. Miller eds. The Foucault Effect. . Brighton: Harvester Wheatsheaf. pp 87-104

Elias, Norbert (1978) 'On Transformations of Aggressiveness. Theory and Society 5: 227-53

Elias, Norbert (1994) The Civilizing Process. Oxford: Blackwell

Christie, Nils (1977), 'Conflicts as Property'. British Journal of Criminology 17 pp. 1-15.

Cockburn, J.  ed. (1977), Crime in England, 1550-1800. London: Methuen (esp. Introduction by G.R. Elton)

Weisser, M. (1979), Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe. Brighton: Harvester press

Lenman, Bruce and Geoffrey Parker, (1980). ‘The State, The Community and Criminal Law in Early Modern Europe’ in V. Gatrell et al. eds. Crime and the Law. London: Europa Publications.

Hanawalt, Barbara (1979), Crime and conflict in English communities, 1300-1348. Harvard University Press.

Hanawalt, Barbara and David Wallace, eds. (1998) Medieval Crime and Social Control. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press

Porter, J. (1989), 'Crime in the Countryside 1100-1800' in G.E. Mingay ed. The Unquiet Countryside, London: Routledge.



2. TRADITIONAL ORGANISED PREDATORY CRIME

Discussion topics

What were the main forms of organised predatory crime in pre-industrial England?

Why did such crime tend to increase during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries?

Key points

•    role of sanctuary

•    bandits as 'social criminals'?

•    types of gang organisation

Reading

* Hobsbawm, Eric (1959) Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Manchester: Manchester University Press

* Hobsbawm, Eric (2000) Bandits (revised edition) London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, (orig. 1969 Penguin Books)

Slatta, Richard (2004) Eric J. Hobsbawm’s Social Bandit: A Critique and Revision A Contracorrente (Brazil) online here 

O'Malley, Pat (1979) 'Social bandits, modern capitalism and the traditional peasantry. A critique of Hobsbawm' Journal of Peasant Studies 6(4): 489-501

O'Malley, Pat  (1979) 'Class conflict, land and social banditry. Bush-ranging in nineteenth century Australia' Social Problems 26(3): 271-83

O'Malley, P. (1981) 'The class production of crime: banditry and class strategies in England and Australia' in R. Simon, S. Spitzer eds. Research in Law and Sociology. Greenwich NY: JAI Press

O'Malley, Pat (1981) "The suppression of social banditry. Train robbery in US border states and bushrangers in Australia 1865-1905" Crime and Social Justice 16:32-39.

* McIntosh, Mary (1975) The Organisation of Crime. London: Macmillan

McMullan, J. (1984) The Canting Crew: London's Criminal Underworld 1550-1700. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press

* Rediker, Marcus (2004) Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age. London: Verso

Sharpe, James (2004) Dick Turpin: The Myth of the English Highwayman. London: Profile Books

Spraggs, Gillian (2001) Outlaws and Highwaymen. The Cult of the Robber in England from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century, London: Pimlico

Summerson, Henry (1996) ‘The Criminal Underworld of Medieval England’ Journal of Legal History, 17(3): 197–224

Knight, Stephen, (1994) Robin Hood. A Complete Study of the English Outlaw. Oxford: Blackwell

Seal, Graham (1996) The Outlaw Legend. A Cultural Tradition in Britain, America and Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Hay, Douglas, Linebaugh, Peter, Thompson, Edward et al. eds. (1975) Albion’s Fatal Tree. Crime and Society in Eighteenth-Century England. London: Allen Lane

Hill, Christopher (1996) Liberty Against the Law. Some Seventeenth-Century Controversies. London: Allen Lane (chapter 2)

Crummey, Donald ed. (1986) Banditry, Rebellion and Social Protest in Africa. London: James Currey

Blok, Anton (1972) 'The Peasant and the Brigand: Social Banditry Reconsidered' Comparative Studies in Society and History 14 (4): 495-504.



3. CRIME AND PROTEST IN 18TH AND EARLY 19TH CENTURY ENGLAND

Discussion topics

How far was the distinction between crime and social protest blurred in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries?

Key points

•    criminalisation of customary activities

•    criminalisation of the working class as a whole

•    absence of legitimate channels of political expression for the masses

•    disruption and anomie caused by urbanisation and market relations

Reading

* Lea, John (2002) Crime and Modernity: continuities in left realist criminology. London: Sage Publications (chapter 2 esp pp 30-39)

* Lea, John (1999) 'Social Crime Revisited' Theoretical Criminology 3 (3)307-325

Emsley, Clive (2005) Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 (third edition), London: Pearson, (chapters 1 and 5)

Sharpe, James (1999), Crime in Early Modern England 1550-1750, (second edition) London: Longman. (chapter 6)

Rawlings, Philip (1999), Crime and Power: A History of Criminal Justice 1688-1988, London: Longman. (chapter 1) 

* Thompson. Edward (1967) 'The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century.' Past and Present 50. pp 76-136

Thompson, Edward (1977) Whigs and Hunters: The Origins of the Black Act. Harmondsworth: Penguin books

* Hay, Douglas, Linebaugh, Peter, Thompson, Edward et al. eds. (1975) Albion's Fatal Tree: Crime and Society in Eighteenth Century England. London: Allen Lane

Langbein, John (1983) 'Albion's Fatal Flaws' Past and Present 98. pp 96-120

Linebaugh, Peter (1991), The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century. London: Penguin Books (second edition 2003 London: Verso)

Langbein, John (1991) 'Culprits and Victims' Times Literary Supplement, (11th October) and reply by Linebaugh (Times Literary Supplement 15th November 1991, p. 17)

Rule,  John (1979) 'Social crime in the rural south during the eighteenth and early nineteenth century' Southern History 1: 39-53

Reay, Barry. (1998) Popular Cultures in England, 1550-1750. London: Longmans

Wood, Andy. (2002)  Riot, Rebellion and Popular Politics in Early Modern England. Basingstoke: Palgrave

Sharpe, James (1996) ‘Crime, Order and Historical Change’ in J. Muncie and E. McLaughlin eds. The Problem of Crime. London: Sage Publications (especially section 2.2)

Randall, A., Charlesworth, A. eds. (1996) Markets, Market Culture and Popular Protest in Eighteenth Century Britain and Ireland. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press

Hobsbawm, Eric and George Rude (1993) Captain Swing. London: Pimlico

Mingay, G. (1989) 'Rural War: the life and times of Captain Swing' in G.E. Mingay ed. The Unquiet Countryside, London: Routledge.

Archer, John (1989), 'Poachers Abroad'  in G.E. Mingay ed. The Unquiet Countryside, London: Routledge.

Jones, David (1989) 'Rural Crime and Protest in the Victorian Era' in G.E. Mingay ed. The Unquiet Countryside, London: Routledge.

Stevenson, john (1992) Popular Disturbances In England 1700-1832 London: Longman

Rude, George (1985) Criminal and Victim: crime and society in early nineteenth century England. Oxford: Clarendon Press

McLynn, Frank (1991) Crime and punishment in eighteenth-century England. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Archer, John (1999), 'Poaching Gangs and Violence: The Urban-Rural Divide in Nineteenth Century Lancashire', British Journal of Criminology 29: 1 pp 25-37.

Bohstedt, J. (1988) 'Women in English Riots' Past and Present vol 120



4. LAW, IDEOLOGY AND THE GALLOWS

Discussion topics

‘The eighteenth century criminal justice system was characterised by brutal and spectacular punishment but counterbalanced by its extreme inefficiency in catching offenders’ Discuss

Key points

•    role of brutality and spectacle

•    mercy and discretion

•    ineffectiveness of state institutions

•    blurring of criminality and law enforcement

Reading

* Lea, John (2002) Crime and Modernity: continuities in left realist criminology. London: Sage Publications (chapter 2)

* Rock, P.aul (1983) 'Law, Order and Power in Late Seventeenth and early Eighteenth Century England' in Cohen, S. Scull, A. eds. Social Control and the State. Oxford: Blackwell ( pp 191-221)

* Rawlings, Philip (1999), Crime and Power: A History of Criminal Justice 1688-1988, London: Longman. (chapters 1 and 3)

Godfrey, Barry and Paul Lawrence (2005) Crime and Justice 1750-1950 Cullompton: Willan Publishing (chapter 6 esp pp 55-9)

* Hay, Douglas (1981), 'Property Authority and the Criminal Law' in M. Fitzgerald et al. eds. Crime and Society: readings in history and theory. London: Routledge. (chapter 1),

Linebaugh, Peter (1991), The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century. London: Penguin Books (second edition 2003 London: Verso)

King, Peter (2000) Crime, Justice and Discretion in England 1740-1820 Oxford: Oxford University Press

Brewer, John and John Styles, 1981,  ‘Popular Attitudes to the Law in the Eighteenth Century’ in M. Fitzgerald et al. eds. Crime and Society: readings in history and theory. London: Routledge. (chapter 2)

Sharpe, James  (1999), Crime in Early Modern England 1550-1750, (second edition) London: Longman. (chapters 7 and 8)

Emsley, Clive (2005) Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 (third edition) London: Pearson (chapters 3, and 10)

Sharpe, James 1996 ‘Crime, Order and Historical Change’ in John Muncie and Eugene McLaughlin eds. The Problem of Crime. London: Sage Publications (especially section 3)

Gatrell, Victor (1994). The Hanging Tree: Execution and the English People 1760-1868, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Beattie, John (1986), Crime and the courts in England, 1660-1800. Oxford: Clarendon Press (chapter 9)

Beattie, John (2001) Policing and Punishment in London 1660-1750: Urban Crime and the Limits of Terror. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Foucault, Michel (1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London: Allen Lane (also Penguin Books 1991) (pp 3-103)

Dodsworth, Francis (2006) 'Police And The Prevention Of Crime: Commerce, Temptation and the Corruption of the Body Politic, from Fielding to Colquhoun' British Journal of Criminology  (forthcoming)



5. CRIMINAL GOVERNANCE AND WEAK CENTRAL AUTHORITY: SICILY AND THE MAFIA

Discussion topics

Account for the emergence of the mafia as a powerful criminal organisation in 19th century Sicily.

Compare and contrast the social conditions in England and Sicily during the late 18th and early 19th centuries as regards the regulation of crime

Key points

•    weak central authority

•    role of the family

•    role of violence

•    collusion between criminal and legal authority

Reading

* Lea, John (2002) Crime and Modernity: continuities in left realist criminology. London: Sage Publications (chapter 3)

* Blok, Anton (1974) The Mafia of a Sicilian Village 1860-1980: A Study of Violent Peasant Entrepreneurs. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Catanzaro, Raimondo (1994) 'Violent Social Regulation: Organized Crime in the Italian South' Social and Legal Studies (3) pp 267-79

* Catanzaro, Raimondo (1992) 'Men of Respect': a Social History of the Sicilian Mafia. New York: The Free Press

Rock, Paul (1983) 'Law, Order and Power in Late Seventeenth and early Eighteenth Century England' in Cohen, S. Scull, A. eds. Social Control and the State. Oxford: Blackwell ( pp 191-221)

Hobsbawm, Eric (1959) Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Manchester: Manchester University Press

Arlacchi, Pino (1988) Mafia Business: the mafia ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press (chapter I.)

Dickie, John (2004)  Cosa Nostra: a history of the Sicilian Mafia. London: Hodder and Stoughton (chapters 1-4)

Hess, Henner (1998)  Mafia and Mafiosi: Origin, Power and Myth. London: Hurst & Co.



6. CRIME AND INDUSTRIALISATION

Discussion topics

Assess the evidence and explanations for falling crime rates during the nineteenth century.

Describe and explain the main changes in criminal organisation during the nineteenth century

To  what extent did crime become a more marginalised activity in poor communities during the nineteenth century?

Key points

•    falling crime rates

•    'normalisation' of crime

•    changing cultural sensitivies to violence

•    decline of old criminal fraternities and sanctuaries

•    decline of social crime

Reading

* Lea, John (2002) Crime and Modernity: continuities in left realist criminology. London: Sage Publications (chapters 2 and 3)

Lea, John (1999) 'Social Crime Revisited' Theoretical Criminology 3 (3)307-325

Emsley, Clive (2005) Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 (third edition), London: Pearson Longman. (chapter 2)

* Godfrey, Barry and Paul Lawrence (2005) Crime and Justice 1750-1950 Cullompton: Willan Publishing (chapters 6 and 7)

* Gatrell, Victor (1980) ‘The decline of theft and violence in Victorian and Edwardian England’ in Victor Gatrell, et al. eds. Crime and the Law, London: Europa Publications

* Sharpe, James 1996 ‘Crime, Order and Historical Change’ in J. Muncie and E. McLaughlin eds. The Problem of Crime. London: Sage Publications (especially sections 4.1 to 4.4)

McIntosh, Mary (1971), 'Changes in the Organization of Thieving' in Stan Cohen ed. Images of Deviance. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

* McIntosh, Mary (1975) The Organisation of Crime. London: Macmillan

Wood, J. Carter (2004) Violence and Crime in Nineteenth Century England: The Shadow of our Refinement. London: Routledge

Wiener, Martin (2004) Men of Blood: Violence, Manliness and Criminal Justice in Victorian England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Godfrey, Barry and Paul Lawrence (2005) Crime and Justice 1750-1950 Cullompton: Willan Publishing (chapter 6)

Godfrey, Barry (2003) 'Counting and Accounting for the Decline in Non-Lethal Violence in England, Australia, and New Zealand, 1880–1920' British Journal of Criminology 43: 340 - 353.

McDonald, Lynn (1982) 'Theory and Evidence of Rising Crime in the Nineteenth Century' British Journal of Sociology 33. pp 404-420

Lea, John (1996) ‘Engels and the Crime Question’ in John Lea and Geoff Pilling eds. The Condition of Britain - essays on Frederick Engels' Condition of the Working Class in England 1844. London: Pluto  (online version here)

Zehr, Howard (1976) Crime and the Development of Modern Society London: Croome Helm.

Gurr, Ted (1989) 'Historical Trends in Violent Crime: Europe and the United States' in Ted Gurr ed. Violence in America vol.1 London: Sage Publications.

Chesney, Kellow (1972), The Victorian Underworld: A Fascinating Recreation, London: Penguin Books.

Thomas, Donald (1998) The Victorian Underworld. London: John Murray

Cohen, Phil (1981) 'Policing the Working Class City' in Fine, B. et al. eds. Capitalism and the Rule of Law. London: Hutchinson. (also reprinted in M. Fitzgerald et al. eds. Crime and Society: readings in history and theory. London: Routledge. (chapter 6)

M. Fitzgerald et al. eds. Crime and Society: readings in history and theory. London: Routledge.  (chapters 8-12)

Philips David (1977) Crime and Authority in Victorian England: The Black Country 1836-60. London: Croom Helm

Stedman-Jones, Gareth (1984) Outcast London. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books

Benson, John (1989) The Working Class in Britain 1850-1939. London: Longmans



7. THE 'NEW POLICE'

Discussion topics

“The establishment of the New Police during the nineteenth century owed more to the necessity to keep the working class under control than to the necessity to control crime.”

What were the main developments in policing London prior to the foundation of the Metropolitan Police in 1829?

Key points

•    ineffectiveness of tradtional policing

•    tasks of police forces in the early nineteenth century

•    which social groups opposed the formation of the new police and why

Reading

* Rawlings, Philip (1999) Crime and Power: A History of Criminal Justice 1688-1988, London: Longman. (chapters 2, 5 and 7)

* Emsley, Clive (2005) Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 (third edition), London: Longman. (chapters 8 and 9)

* Godfrey, Barry and Paul Lawrence (2005) Crime and Justice 1750-1950 Cullompton: Willan Publishing (chapter 2)

Lea, John (2002) Crime and Modernity: continuities in left realist criminology. London: Sage Publications (chapter 2)

* Silver, Allan (1967) The Demand for Order in Civil Society’ in David Bordua ed. The Police: Six Sociological Essays. New York: Wiley (also reprinted (2004) in Tim Newburn ed. Policing: Key Readings Cullompton: Willan Publishing )

Ignatieff, Michael (2004) 'Police and people: the birth of Mr Peel's 'blue locusts' in Tim Newburn ed. Policing: Key Readings Cullompton: Willan Publishing

Cohen, Phil (1979) 'Policing the Working Class City' in Fine, B. et al. eds. Capitalism and the Rule of Law. London: Hutchinson. (also reprinted (1981) in M. Fitzgerald et al. eds. Crime and Society: readings in history and theory. London: Routledge. (chapter 6)

Davis, Jennifer (1989) 'From "rookeries" to "communities": race, poverty and policing in London 1850-1985.' History Workshop Journal 27:66-85

Zedner, Lucia (2006) 'Policing Before and After the Police: The Historical Antecedents of Contemporary Crime Control.' British Journal of Criminology 46: 78 - 96.

Emsley, Clive (1996) ‘The Origins and Development of the Police’ in Eugene McLaughlin and John Muncie eds. Controlling Crime. London: Sage Publications

Radzinowicz, Leon (1981) ‘Towards a National Standard of Police’ in M. Fitzgerald et al. eds. Crime and Society: readings in history and theory. London: Routledge (chapter 4)

Storch, Robert (1981) ‘The Plague of Blue Locusts: police reform and popular resistance in Northern England 1840-57’ in M. Fitzgerald et al. eds. Crime and Society: readings in history and theory London: Routledge. (chapter 5)

Storch, Robert (1976) 'The Policeman as Domestic Missionary; Urban Discipline and Popular Culture in Northern England 1850-1880'  Journal of Social History IX. 4.

Brogden, Mike (1982) The Police: Autonomy and Consent London: Academic Press

Emsley, Clive (1983) Policing and Its Context 1750-1870 London: Macmillan

Reiner, Robert (2000) The Politics of the Police. (third edition) Oxford: Oxford University Press (chapters 2 and 3)

Steedman, Carolyn (1984) Policing the Victorian Community. London: Routledge

Jones, David (1982) Crime, Protest, Community and Police in Nineteenth Century Britain. London: Routledge

Philips, David (1980). 'A New Engine of Power and Authority' The Institutionalisation of Law Enforcement in England 1750-1830 in V. Gatrell,. et al eds. Crime and the Law. London: Europa Publications

W. Miller, 1977, Cops and Bobbies: police authority in New York and London 1830-1870. Chicago: Chicago University Press

B. Weinberger, 1981. ‘The Police and Public in Mid-nineteenth century Warwickshire’ (in V.Bailey ed. 1981,. Policing and Punishment in Nineteenth Century Britain. London: Croom Helm)

McMullan, J. (1995) 'The Political Economy of Thief-Taking' Crime, Law and Social Change 23 pp 121-146

Mcmullan, John (1996) 'The New Improved Monied Police: Reform, Crime Control, and the Commodification of Policing in London.' British Journal of Criminology 36: 85 - 108.

McMullen, J. (1998) 'Social Surveillance and the Rise of the Police Machine' Theoretical Criminology (2) 1: 93-117

Williams, Kristian (2003) 'The Demand for Order and the Birth of Modern Policing' Monthly Review 55(7) (online here

Styles, John (1987) 'The Emergence Of The Police—Explaining Police Reform In Eighteenth And Nineteenth Century England' British Journal of Criminology 27: 15 - 22.



8. PROSECUTION AND THE COURTS

Discussion topics

‘The gradual concentration of the control of criminal prosecution in the hands of the police during the nineteenth century was a major advantage for working class people in England’.

Key points

•    changing gender balance in prosecutions

•    decline of the victim as prosecutor

•    absence of office of public prosecutor in England and Wales

Reading

* Godfrey, Barry and Paul Lawrence (2005) Crime and Justice 1750-1950 Cullompton: Willan Publishing (chapters 3 and 4)

* Emsley, Clive (2005) Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 (third edition) London:  Longman. (chapter 8)

Sharpe, James (1999) Crime in Early Modern England 1550-1750, (second edition) London: Longman. (chapter 2)

Foucault, Michel (1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London: Allen Lane (also Penguin Books 1991) (pp 3-103) (part two)

Hay, Douglas (1989) Prosecution and Power: Malicious Prosecution in the English Courts 1750-1850 in D. Hay, F. Snyder, eds. Policing and Prosecution in England 1750-1850. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hay, Douglas (1983) 'Controlling the English Prosecutor' Osgoode Hall Law Journal 21: 165-86

Davis, Jennifer (1989) ‘Prosecutions and their context: the use of criminal law in late nineteenth century London’ in D. Hay, F. Snyder, eds. Policing and Prosecution in England 1750-1850. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Davis, Jennifer (1984) ‘A Poor Man’s system of justice: the London police courts in the second half of the nineteenth century’ Historical Journal. vol 27 pp 134-147.

Shubert, A. (1981.) ‘Private initiative in law enforcement: Associations for the Prosecution of Felons 1744-1856’ in Victor Bailey ed. Policing and Punishment in Nineteenth Century Britain. London: Croom Helm

Abel-Smith, B., and R. Stevens (1967) Lawyers and the Courts: a sociological study of the English Legal System 1750-1965. London: Heinemann

Wiener, Martin (1990) Reconstructing the Criminal: culture, law and policy in England 1830-1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Wiener, Martin (2004) Men of Blood: Violence, Manliness and Criminal Justice in Victorian England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Langbein, John (2003) The Origins of the Adversary Criminal Trial. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Cairns, David (1998) Advocacy and the Making of the Adversarial Criminal Trial, 1800–1865, Oxford: The Hambledon Press

D'Cruze, Shani (1999) Sex, violence and local courts: working-class respectability in a mid-nineteenth-century Lancashire town. British Journal of Criminology 39:39-55

Feeley, Malcolm and Deborah Little. (1991) "The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process, 1687-1912," Law And Society Review 25:  719

Feeley, Malcolm.(1996) "The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process: A Comparative History," Criminal Justice History: An International Annual 15:  235

Kermode, Jenny and Walker, Garthine eds. (1994) Women, crime and the courts in early modern England. London: UCL Press



9. THE MODERN SYSTEM OF PUNISHMENT

Discussion topics

Why did the prison become the main vehicle for the reform of the system of punishment during the nineteenth century ?

Key points

•    decline of spectacle?

•    punishment as reform - the 'penal-welfare' complex

•    decline of capital punishment

•    relationship between capitalism and discipline

Reading

* Godfrey, Barry and Paul Lawrence (2005) Crime and Justice 1750-1950. Cullompton: Willan Publishing (chapter 5)

* Rawlings, Philip (1999) Crime and Power: A History of Criminal Justice 1688-1988, London: Longman. (chapters 4 and 6 and 7 pp101-8)

* Emsley, Clive (2005) Crime and Society in England 1750-1900. (third edition) London:  Longman. (chapter 10)

* Garland, David (1985) Punishment and Welfare: a history of penal strategies. Aldershot: Gower

* Foucault, Michel (1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London: Allen Lane. (reprinted in Penguin Books 1991) (parts two, three and four)

Spierenberg, P. (1984) The Spectacle of Suffering: Executions and the Evolution of Repression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Rusche, Georg and Otto Kircheimer (1968) Punishment and Social Structure. New York: Russell.

Weiss, Robert (1987) 'Humanitarianism, labour exploitation, or social control? A critical survey of theory and  research on the origin and development of prisons. Social History 12(3): 331-50

McGowan, R. (1994) 'Power and Humanity or Foucault among the historians' in C. Jones and R.Porter eds. Reassessing Foucault. London: Routledge

Cohen, Stanley (1985) Visions of Social Control. Cambridge: Polity Press. (chapter 1.)

Muncie, John (1996) ‘Prison Histories: Reform, Repression and Rehabilitation’ in Eugene McLaughlin and John Muncie eds. Controlling Crime. London: Sage Publications

Gatrell, Victor (1994) The Hanging Tree: Execution and the English People 1760-1868 Oxford: Oxford University Press (pp 589-611)

Ignatieff, Michael (1978) A Just Measure of Pain, London: Macmillan

Garland, David (1990) Punishment and Modern Society, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Zedner, Lucia (1991) Women, Crime and Custody in Victorian England, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Melossi, Dario and Massimo Pavarini (1981) The Prison and the Factory. London: Macmillan

Ignatieff, Michael (1983) 'State, Civil Society and Total Institutions: a critique of recent social histories of punishment' in Stan Cohen and Andrew Scull eds. Social Control and the State. Oxford:  Blackwell.

DeLacey, M. (1981) ‘Grinding Men Good?: Lancashire’s prisons at mid-century’ in Victor Bailey ed. Policing and Punishment in Nineteenth Century Britain. London: Croom Helm

Radzinowicz, Leon and Hood, R. (1990) The Emergence of Penal Policy in Victorian and Edwardian England Oxford: Clarendon Press

Forsythe, Bill (2004) 'Loneliness and Cellular Confinement in English Prisons 1878–1921' British Journal of Criminology 44: 759 - 770.

McConville, Sean (1981) A History of English Prison Administration Vol 1. 1750-1887. London: Routledge

Priestley, Philip (1999) Victorian Prison Lives: English Prison Biography 1830-1914. London: Pimlico



10. GENDER AND CRIME

Discussion topics

What, if any, changes did industrialisation and urbanisation bring to the nature and extent of sexual violence?

Account for the changing participation of women in criminal activity during the 19th century

Key points

•    consolidation of the working class family

•    movement of women out of public space

•    legal changes regulating family violence

Reading

* Lea, John (2002) Crime and Modernity: continuities in left realist criminology. London: Sage Publications (chapter 3 esp pp 59-62)

* Godfrey, Barry and Paul Lawrence (2005) Crime and Justice 1750-1950. Cullompton: Willan Publishing (chapter 8)

* Emsley, Clive (2005) Crime and Society in England 1750-1900 (third edition) London: Longman. (chapter 4)

* Tomes, Nancy (1978), 'A Torrent of Abuse: crimes of violence between working class men and women in London 1840-1875' Journal of Social History 11 pp 328-45.

Hammerton, James (1992) Cruelty and Companionship: Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Married Life. London: Routledge

Foyster, Elizabeth (2005) Marital Violence: An English Family History 1660-1857. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Bohstedt, J. (1988) 'Women in English Riots', Past and Present vol 120

Beattie, John (1975) 'The Criminality of Women in the Eighteenth Century'  Journal of Social History 8: 80-116

Feeley, Malcolm and Deborah Little. (1991) "The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process, 1687-1912," Law And Society Review 25:  719

Feeley, Malcolm.(1996) "The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process: A Comparative History," Criminal Justice History: An International Annual 15:  235

Graham, P. and J. Clarke (1996) ‘Dangerous Places: crime and the city’ in  John Muncie and Eugene McLaughlin eds. The Problem of Crime. London: Sage Publications (sections 1 and 2)

Clark, Anna (1977). Men's Violence, Women's Silence: Sexual Assault in England 1770-1845. London: Pandora Press.

Clarke, Anna (1992) 'Humanity or Justice? Wifebeating and the law in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries' in Carole Smart ed. Regulating Womanhood, London: Routledge.

Porter, Roy (1986) ‘Rape: Does it have a Historical Meaning?’ in S. Tomaselli R. Porter eds. Rape: An Historical and Social Enquiry, Oxford: Blackwell.

Shorter, Edward (1977). 'On Writing the History of Rape' Signs vol. 3 no.2 pp 471-82

Hartman, H. and E. Ross, (1978) Comment on Shorter, Writing the History of Rape. Signs vol. 3 no.4 pp 931-6

Walkowitz, Judith (1980) Prostitution and Victorian society: women, class and the state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Walkowitz, Judith (1992) City of dreadful delight: narratives of sexual danger in late-Victorian London. London: Virago

Conley, Carolyn (1986) ‘Rape and justice in Victorian  England’. Victorian Studies. Vol. 29. Part. 4.

Conley, Carolyn. (1991) The Unwritten Law: Criminal Justice in Victorian Kent. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bourke, Joanna (1994) Working Class Cultures in Britain: Gender, Class and Ethnicity. London: Routledge.

Jackson, Louise (2000) Child Sexual Abuse in Victorian England. London: Routledge.

Vigarello, Georges (2001) A History of Rape: sexual violence in France from the 16th to the 20th Century. Cambridge: Polity Press

Wiener, Martin (2004) Men of Blood: Violence, Manliness and Criminal Justice in Victorian England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Humfrey, Paula (1997) "Female servants and women's criminality in early modern London" in S. Devereaux, A. May and G. Smith, (eds.), Crime and Society in the Old World and the New. Toronto: University of Toronto

Kermode, Jenny and Walker, Garthine eds. (1994) Women, crime and the courts in early modern England. London: UCL Press

Walker, Garthine (2003) Crime, Gender and Social Order in Early Modern England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Zedner, Lucia (1995) 'Criminalising Sexual Offences Within the Home.' in Loveland, I. ed.  Frontiers of Criminality. London: Sweet and Maxwell.



11. YOUTH CRIME IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

Discussion topics

How far was the concept of 'juvenile delinquency' an expression of Victorian ideology rather than empirical fact?

Key points

•    marginalisation of crime

•    changes in age range of typical offenders during the nineteenth century

•    effects of universal elementary education

Reading

* Godfrey, Barry and Paul Lawrence (2005) Crime and Justice 1750-1950. Cullompton: Willan Publishing (chapter 8)

Shore, Heather (1999), ‘The Trouble with Boys: Gender and the ‘Invention’ of the  Juvenile Offender in Early Nineteenth-century Britain’ in M. Arnot & C. Usborne (eds), Gender and Crime in Modern Europe, London: UCL Press

Shore, Heather (1999)  Artful Dodgers: Youth and Crime in Early Nineteenth-Century London. London: Boydell Press

Shore, Heather (1999) Cross coves, buzzers and general sorts of prigs: juvenile crime and the criminal 'underworld' in the early nineteenth century. British Journal of Criminology 39:10-24

* Shore, Heather (2002) 'Reforming the Juvenile: Gender, Justice and the Child Criminal in Nineteenth-Century England.' in John Muncie, Gordon Hughes and Eugene McLaughlin eds. Youth Justice: critical readings. London: Sage Publications

Magarey, Susan (2002) 'The Invention of Juvenile Delinquency in Early Nineteenth-Century England.' in John Muncie, Gordon Hughes and Eugene McLaughlin eds. Youth Justice: critical readings. London: Sage Publications

May, Margaret (2002)  Innocence and Experience: The Evolution of the Concept of Juvenile Delinquency in the Mid-Nineteenth Century.'  in John Muncie, Gordon Hughes and Eugene McLaughlin eds. Youth Justice: critical readings. London: Sage Publications

* King, Peter (1998) ‘The Rise of Juvenile Delinquency in England, 1780-1840’, Past and Present 160

Bailey, Victor (1987) Delinquency and Citizenship: Reclaiming the Young Offender, 1914-48. Oxford: Clarendon Press

Pearson, Geoffrey (1983) Hooligan: A History of Respectable Fears. London: Macmillan

Lerman. Paul (1984) 'Policing Juveniles In London: Shifts in Guiding Discretion 1893–1968.' British Journal of Criminology 24: 168 - 184.

Cohen, Phil (1979) 'Policing the Working Class City' in Fine, B. et al. eds. Capitalism and the Rule of Law. London: Hutchinson. (also reprinted (1981) in M. Fitzgerald et al. eds. Crime and Society: readings in history and theory. London: Routledge. (chapter 6)



12. WHITE COLLAR AND WORKPLACE CRIME IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

Discussion topics

"the education and restraint of the business class was as much, if not more crucial to the effective function of British capitalism during the nineteenth century as was the education of the working class in the discipline of factory labour."

What are the parallels between the reluctance of the criminal justice system during the nineteenth century to interfere in the running of the commercial company and the family

Key points

•    lack of sophisticated auditing and accounting systems

•    laisser-faire doctrine as hindrance to effective regulation

•    assumption that shame and disgrace as sufficient deterrents to fraud

Reading

Lea, John (2002) Crime and Modernity: continuities in left realist criminology. London: Sage Publications (chapter 3 esp pp 55-9)

* Godfrey, Barry and Paul Lawrence (2005) Crime and Justice 1750-1950. Cullompton: Willan Publishing (chapter 9)

Godfrey, Barry (1999) 'Law, factory discipline and 'theft': the impact of the factory on workplace appropriation in mid to late nineteenth-century Yorkshire. British Journal of Criminology 39: 56 - 71.

Godfrey, Barry and John Locker (2001) 'The Ninteenth-Century Decline of Custom and its Impact on Theories of 'Workplace Theft' and 'White Collar' Crime' in Northern History 38

* Robb, George (1992) White-Collar Crime in Modern England: Financial Fraud and Business Morality 1845-1929, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

Robb, George (2006) 'Women and White-Collar Crime' British Journal of Criminology (forthcoming)

Channon, Geoffrey (1999) 'The Business Morals of British Railway Companies in the Mid-Nineteenth Century. Business and Economic History 28(2)

Johnstone, P (1998) 'Serious white collar fraud: historical and contemporary perspectives' Crime, Law and Social Change 30(2): 107-30

Locker, John (2005) "Quiet thieves, quiet punishment": private responses to the "respectable" offender. 1850-1930' Crime History and Societies 9(1)

Carson, William (1981) ‘White collar crime and the institutionalisation of ambiguity: the case of the early factory acts’ in M. Fitzgerald et al. eds Crime and Society: readings in History and Theory London: Routledge (chapter 7)

Sindall, R. (1983) 'Middle class crime in nineteenth century England' Criminal Justice History vol 4. pp 23-40

Poovey, Mary ed. (2002) The Financial System in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Victorian Archive Series)New York: Oxford University Press